Source code for oauth_dropins.webutil.util

"""Misc utilities.

Should not depend on App Engine API or SDK packages.
"""
import calendar
import collections
from collections.abc import Iterator
import contextlib
import base64
from datetime import datetime, timedelta, timezone
import http.client
import humanize
import inspect
import logging
import mimetypes
import numbers
import os
import re
import socket
import ssl
import string
import sys
import threading
import traceback
import urllib.error, urllib.parse, urllib.request
from urllib.parse import urlparse
from xml.sax import saxutils

from cachetools import cached, TTLCache
from domain2idna import domain2idna
from flask import abort

try:
  import ujson
  json = ujson
except ImportError:
  ujson = None
  import json

# These are used in interpret_http_exception() and is_connection_failure(). They
# use dependencies that we may or may not have, so degrade gracefully if they're
# not available.
try:
  import apiclient
  import apiclient.errors
except ImportError:
  apiclient = None

try:
  from oauth2client.client import AccessTokenRefreshError
except ImportError:
  AccessTokenRefreshError = None

try:
  import requests
except ImportError:
  requests = None

try:
  import urllib3
except ImportError:
  if requests:
    try:
      from requests.packages import urllib3
    except ImportError:
      urllib3 = None

try:
  import webob
  from webob import exc
  # webob doesn't know about HTTP 429 for rate limiting. Tell it.
  try:
    webob.util.status_reasons[429] = 'Rate limited'  # webob <= 0.9
  except AttributeError:
    webob.status_reasons[429] = 'Rate limited'  # webob >= 1.1.1
except ImportError:
  exc = None

try:
  import werkzeug
  import werkzeug.exceptions
except ImportError:
  werkzeug = None

# Used in parse_html() and friends.
try:
  import bs4
except ImportError:
  bs4 = None

try:
  import mf2py
except ImportError:
  mf2py = None

try:
  import prawcore
except ImportError:
  prawcore = None

try:
  import tumblpy
except ImportError:
  tumblpy = None

try:
  import tweepy
except ImportError:
  tweepy = None

logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)

# set with set_user_agent()
user_agent = 'webutil (https://github.com/snarfed/webutil)'

EPOCH = datetime.fromtimestamp(0, timezone.utc)
EPOCH_ISO = EPOCH.isoformat()
# from https://stackoverflow.com/a/53140944/186123
ISO8601_DURATION_RE = re.compile(
  r'^ *P(?!$)(\d+Y)?(\d+M)?(\d+W)?(\d+D)?(T(?=\d)(\d+H)?(\d+M)?(\d+S)?)? *$')

# default HTTP request timeout
HTTP_TIMEOUT = 15
socket.setdefaulttimeout(HTTP_TIMEOUT)
# monkey-patch socket.getdefaulttimeout() because it often gets reset, e.g. by
# socket.setblocking() and maybe other operations.
# http://stackoverflow.com/a/8465202/186123
socket.getdefaulttimeout = lambda: HTTP_TIMEOUT

# Average HTML page size as of 2015-10-15 is 56K, so this is very generous and
# conservative.
# http://www.sitepoint.com/average-page-weight-increases-15-2014/
# http://httparchive.org/interesting.php#bytesperpage
MAX_HTTP_RESPONSE_SIZE = 1000000  # 1MB
HTTP_RESPONSE_TOO_BIG_STATUS_CODE = 422  # Unprocessable Entity

FOLLOW_REDIRECTS_CACHE_TIME = 60 * 60 * 24  # 1d expiration
follow_redirects_cache = TTLCache(1000, FOLLOW_REDIRECTS_CACHE_TIME)
follow_redirects_cache_lock = threading.RLock()

# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Top-level_domain#Reserved_domains
# Currently used in granary.source.Source.original_post_discovery, not here.
RESERVED_TLDS = {
  'corp',
  'example',
  'internal',
  'invalid',
  'onion',
  'test',
}
LOCAL_TLDS = {
  'local',
  'localhost',
}

"""Global config, string parser nae for BeautifulSoup to use, e.g. 'lxml'.
May be set at runtime.
https://www.crummy.com/software/BeautifulSoup/bs4/doc/#installing-a-parser
"""
beautifulsoup_parser = None

# Regexps for domains, hostnames, and URLs.
#
# Based on kylewm's from redwind:
# https://github.com/snarfed/bridgy/issues/209#issuecomment-47583528
# https://github.com/kylewm/redwind/blob/863989d48b97a85a1c1a92c6d79753d2fbb70775/redwind/util.py#L39
#
# I used to use a more complicated regexp based on
# https://github.com/silas/huck/blob/master/huck/utils.py#L59 , but i kept
# finding new input strings that would make it hang the regexp engine.
#
# more complicated alternatives:
# http://stackoverflow.com/questions/720113#comment23297770_2102648
# https://daringfireball.net/2010/07/improved_regex_for_matching_urls
#
# list of TLDs:
# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Internet_top-level_domains#ICANN-era_generic_top-level_domains
#
# Allows emoji and other unicode chars in all domain labels *except* TLDs.
# TODO: support IDN TLDs:
# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Top-level_domain#Internationalized_country_code_TLDs
# https://www.iana.org/domains/root/db
#
# TODO: fix bug in LINK_RE that makes it miss emoji domain links without scheme,
# eg '☕⊙.ws'. bug is that the \b at the beginning of SCHEME_RE doesn't apply to
# emoji, since they're not word-constituent characters, and that the '?' added
# in LINK_RE only applies to the parenthesized group in SCHEME_RE, not the \b.
# I tried changing \b to '(?:^|[\s%s])' % PUNCT, but that broke other things.
PUNCT = string.punctuation.replace('-', '').replace('.', '')
SCHEME_RE = r'\b(?:[a-z]{3,9}:/{1,3})'
HOST_RE = r'(?:[^\s%s])+(?::\d{2,6})?' % PUNCT
DOMAIN_RE = r'(?:[^\s.%s]+\.)+[a-z]{2,}(?::\d{2,6})?' % PUNCT
PATH_QUERY_RE = r'(?:(?:/[\w/.\-_~.;:%?@$#&()=+]*)|\b)'
URL_RE = re.compile(SCHEME_RE + HOST_RE + PATH_QUERY_RE,  # scheme required
                    re.UNICODE | re.IGNORECASE)
LINK_RE = re.compile(SCHEME_RE + '?' + DOMAIN_RE + PATH_QUERY_RE,  # scheme optional
                     re.UNICODE | re.IGNORECASE)


[docs]class Struct(object): """A generic class that initializes its attributes from constructor kwargs.""" def __init__(self, **kwargs): vars(self).update(**kwargs)
[docs]class CacheDict(dict): """A dict that also implements memcache's get_multi() and set_multi() methods. Useful as a simple in memory replacement for App Engine's memcache API for e.g. get_activities_response() in granary. """ def get_multi(self, keys): keys = set(keys) return {k: v for k, v in list(self.items()) if k in keys} def set(self, key, val, **kwargs): self[key] = val def set_multi(self, updates, **kwargs): super(CacheDict, self).update(updates)
[docs]def to_xml(value): """Renders a dict (usually from JSON) as an XML snippet.""" if isinstance(value, dict): if not value: return '' elems = [] for key, vals in sorted(value.items()): if not isinstance(vals, (list, tuple)): vals = [vals] elems.extend(f'<{key}>{to_xml(val)}</{key}>' for val in vals) return '\n' + '\n'.join(elems) + '\n' else: if value is None: value = '' return str(value)
[docs]def trim_nulls(value, ignore=()): """Recursively removes dict and list elements with None or empty values. Args: value: dict or list ignore: optional sequence of keys to allow to have None/empty values """ NULLS = (None, {}, [], (), '', set(), frozenset()) if isinstance(value, dict): trimmed = {k: trim_nulls(v, ignore=ignore) for k, v in value.items()} return {k: v for k, v in trimmed.items() if k in ignore or v not in NULLS} elif (isinstance(value, (tuple, list, set, frozenset, Iterator)) or inspect.isgenerator(value)): trimmed = [trim_nulls(v, ignore=ignore) for v in value] ret = (v for v in trimmed if v if v not in NULLS) if isinstance(value, Iterator) or inspect.isgenerator(value): return ret else: return type(value)(list(ret)) else: return value
[docs]def uniquify(input): """Returns a list with duplicate items removed. Like list(set(...)), but preserves order. """ if not input: return [] return list(collections.OrderedDict([x, 0] for x in input).keys())
[docs]def get_list(obj, key): """Returns a value from a dict as a list. If the value is a list or tuple, it's converted to a list. If it's something else, it's returned as a single-element list. If the key doesn't exist, returns []. """ val = obj.get(key, []) return (list(val) if isinstance(val, (list, tuple, set)) else [val] if val else [])
[docs]def pop_list(obj, key): """Like get_list(), but also removes the item.""" val = get_list(obj, key) obj.pop(key, None) return val
[docs]def encode(obj, encoding='utf-8'): """Character encodes all unicode strings in a collection, recursively. Args: obj: list, tuple, dict, set, or primitive encoding: string character encoding Returns: sequence or dict version of obj with all unicode strings encoded """ if isinstance(obj, str): return obj.encode(encoding) elif isinstance(obj, tuple): return tuple(encode(v) for v in obj) elif isinstance(obj, list): return [encode(v) for v in obj] elif isinstance(obj, set): return {encode(v) for v in obj} elif isinstance(obj, dict): return {encode(k): encode(v) for k, v in obj.items()} else: return obj
[docs]def get_first(obj, key, default=None): """Returns the first element of a dict value. If the value is a list or tuple, returns the first value. If it's something else, returns the value itself. If the key doesn't exist, returns None. """ val = obj.get(key) if not val: return default return val[0] if isinstance(val, (list, tuple)) else val
[docs]def get_url(val, key=None): """Returns val['url'] if val is a dict, otherwise val. If key is not None, looks in val[key] instead of val. """ if key is not None: val = get_first(val, key) return val.get('url') if isinstance(val, dict) else val
[docs]def get_urls(obj, key, inner_key=None): """Returns elem['url'] if dict, otherwise elem, for each elem in obj[key]. If inner_key is provided, the returned values are elem[inner_key]['url']. """ return dedupe_urls(get_url(elem, key=inner_key) for elem in get_list(obj, key))
[docs]def tag_uri(domain, name, year=None): """Returns a tag URI string for the given domain and name. Example return value: 'tag:twitter.com,2012:snarfed_org/172417043893731329' Background on tag URIs: http://taguri.org/ """ year = f',{year}' if year else '' return f'tag:{domain}{year}:{name}'
_TAG_URI_RE = re.compile(r'tag:([^,]+)(?:,\d+)?:(.+)$')
[docs]def parse_tag_uri(uri): """Returns the domain and name in a tag URI string. Inverse of :func:`tag_uri()`. Returns: (string domain, string name) tuple, or None if the tag URI couldn't be parsed """ match = _TAG_URI_RE.match(uri) return match.groups() if match else None
[docs]def parse_acct_uri(uri, hosts=None): """Parses acct: URIs of the form acct:user@example.com . Background: http://hueniverse.com/2009/08/making-the-case-for-a-new-acct-uri-scheme/ Args: uri: string hosts: sequence of allowed hosts (usually domains). None means allow all. Returns: (username, host) tuple Raises: ValueError if the uri is invalid or the host isn't allowed. """ parsed = urlparse(uri) if parsed.scheme and parsed.scheme != 'acct': raise ValueError(f'Acct URI {uri} has unsupported scheme: {parsed.scheme}') try: username, host = parsed.path.split('@') assert host except (ValueError, AssertionError): raise ValueError(f'Bad acct URI: {uri}') if hosts is not None and host not in hosts: raise ValueError(f'Acct URI {uri} has unsupported host {host}; expected {hosts!r}.') return username, host
def favicon_for_url(url): return f'http://{urlparse(url).netloc}/favicon.ico' FULL_HOST_RE = re.compile(HOST_RE + '$')
[docs]def domain_or_parent_in(input, domains): """Returns True if an input domain or its parent is in a set of domains. Examples: * foo, [] => False * foo, [foo] => True * foo.bar.com, [bar.com] => True * foobar.com, [bar.com] => False * foo.bar.com, [.bar.com] => True * foo.bar.com, [fux.bar.com] => False * bar.com, [fux.bar.com] => False Args: input: string domain domains: sequence of string domains Returns: boolean """ if not input or not domains: return False elif input in domains: return True for domain in domains: if not domain.startswith('.'): domain = '.' + domain if input.endswith(domain): return True return False
[docs]def update_scheme(url, request): """Returns a modified URL with the current request's scheme. Useful for converting URLs to https if and only if the current request itself is being served over https. Args: url: string request: :class:`flask.Request` or :class:`webob.Request` Returns: string, url """ return urllib.parse.urlunparse((request.scheme,) + urlparse(url)[1:])
[docs]def schemeless(url, slashes=True): """Strips the scheme (e.g. 'https:') from a URL. Args: url: string leading_slashes: if False, also strips leading slashes and trailing slash, e.g. 'http://example.com/' becomes 'example.com' Returns: string URL """ url = urllib.parse.urlunparse(('',) + urlparse(url)[1:]) if not slashes: url = url.strip('/') return url
[docs]def fragmentless(url): """Strips the fragment (e.g. '#foo') from a URL. Args: url: string Returns: string URL """ return urllib.parse.urlunparse(urlparse(url)[:5] + ('',))
[docs]def clean_url(url): """Removes transient query params (e.g. utm_*) from a URL. The utm_* (Urchin Tracking Metrics?) params come from Google Analytics. https://support.google.com/analytics/answer/1033867 The source=rss-... params are on all links in Medium's RSS feeds. Args: url: string Returns: string, the cleaned url, or None if it can't be parsed """ if not url: return url utm_params = set(('utm_campaign', 'utm_content', 'utm_medium', 'utm_source', 'utm_term')) try: parts = list(urlparse(url)) except (AttributeError, TypeError, ValueError): return None query = urllib.parse.unquote_plus(parts[4]) params = [(name, value) for name, value in urllib.parse.parse_qsl(query) if name not in utm_params and not (name == 'source' and value.startswith('rss-'))] parts[4] = urllib.parse.urlencode(params) return urllib.parse.urlunparse(parts)
[docs]def quote_path(url): """Quotes (URL-encodes) just the path part of a URL. Args: url: string Returns: string, the quoted url, or None if it can't be parsed """ try: parts = list(urlparse(url)) except (AttributeError, TypeError, ValueError): return None parts[2] = urllib.parse.quote(parts[2]) return urllib.parse.urlunparse(parts)
[docs]def base_url(url): """Returns the base of a given URL. For example, returns 'http://site/posts/' for 'http://site/posts/123'. Args: url: string """ return urllib.parse.urljoin(url, ' ')[:-1] if url else None
[docs]def linkify(text, pretty=False, skip_bare_cc_tlds=False, **kwargs): """Adds HTML links to URLs in the given plain text. For example: ``linkify('Hello http://tornadoweb.org!')`` would return 'Hello <a href="http://tornadoweb.org">http://tornadoweb.org</a>!' Ignores URLs that are inside HTML links, ie anchor tags that look like <a href="..."> . Args: text: string, input pretty: if True, uses :func:`pretty_link()` for link text skip_bare_cc_tlds: boolean, whether to skip links of the form [domain].[2-letter TLD] with no schema and no path Returns: string, linkified input """ links, splits = tokenize_links(text, skip_bare_cc_tlds) result = [] for ii in range(len(links)): result.append(splits[ii]) url = href = links[ii] if not href.startswith('http://') and not href.startswith('https://'): href = 'http://' + href if pretty: result.append(pretty_link(href, **kwargs)) else: result.append(f'<a href="{href}">{url}</a>') result.append(splits[-1]) return ''.join(result)
TIMEZONE_OFFSET_RE = re.compile(r'[+-]\d{2}:?\d{2}$')
[docs]def parse_iso8601(val): """Parses an ISO 8601 or RFC 3339 date/time string and returns a datetime. Time zone designator is optional. If present, the returned datetime will be time zone aware. Args: val: string ISO 8601 or RFC 3339, e.g. '2012-07-23T05:54:49+00:00' Returns: datetime """ # grr, this would be way easier if strptime supported %z, but evidently that # was only added in python 3.2. # http://stackoverflow.com/questions/9959778/is-there-a-wildcard-format-directive-for-strptime assert val val = val.replace('T', ' ') tz = None zone = TIMEZONE_OFFSET_RE.search(val) if zone: offset_str = zone.group() val = val[:-len(offset_str)] offset = (datetime.strptime(offset_str[1:].replace(':', ''), '%H%M') - datetime.strptime('', '')) if offset_str[0] == '-': offset = -offset tz = timezone(offset) elif val[-1] == 'Z': val = val[:-1] tz = timezone.utc # fractional seconds are optional. add them if they're not already there to # make strptime parsing below easier. if '.' not in val: val += '.0' return datetime.strptime(val, '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S.%f').replace(tzinfo=tz)
[docs]def parse_iso8601_duration(input): """Parses an ISO 8601 duration. Note: converts months to 30 days each. (ISO 8601 doesn't seem to define the number of days in a month. Background: https://stackoverflow.com/a/29458514/186123 ) Args: input: string ISO 8601 duration, e.g. 'P3Y6M4DT12H30M5S' https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_8601#Durations Returns: :class:`datetime.timedelta`, or None if input cannot be parsed as an ISO 8601 duration """ if not input: return None match = ISO8601_DURATION_RE.match(input) if not match: return None def g(i): val = match.group(i) return int(val[:-1]) if val else 0 return timedelta(weeks=g(3), days=365 * g(1) + 30 * g(2) + g(4), hours=g(6), minutes=g(7), seconds=g(8))
[docs]def to_iso8601_duration(input): """Converts a timedelta to an ISO 8601 duration. Returns a fairly strict format: 'PnMTnS'. Fractional seconds are silently dropped. Args: input: :class:`datetime.timedelta` https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_8601#Durations Returns: string ISO 8601 duration, e.g. 'P3DT4S' Raises: :class:`TypeError` if delta is not a :class:`datetime.timedelta` """ if not isinstance(input, timedelta): raise TypeError(f'Expected timedelta, got {input.__class__}') return f'P{input.days}DT{input.seconds}S'
[docs]def maybe_iso8601_to_rfc3339(input): """Tries to convert an ISO 8601 date/time string to RFC 3339. The formats are similar, but not identical, eg. RFC 3339 includes a colon in the timezone offset at the end (+0000 instead of +00:00), but ISO 8601 doesn't. If the input can't be parsed as ISO 8601, it's silently returned, unchanged! http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc3339.txt """ try: return parse_iso8601(input).isoformat('T') except (AssertionError, ValueError, TypeError): return input
[docs]def maybe_timestamp_to_rfc3339(input): """Tries to convert a string or int UNIX timestamp to RFC 3339. Assumes UNIX timestamps are always UTC. (They're generally supposed to be.) """ try: dt = datetime.utcfromtimestamp(float(input)).replace(tzinfo=timezone.utc) return dt.isoformat('T', 'milliseconds' if dt.microsecond else 'seconds') except (ValueError, TypeError): return input
[docs]def maybe_timestamp_to_iso8601(input): """Tries to convert a string or int UNIX timestamp to ISO 8601. Assumes UNIX timestamps are always UTC. (They're generally supposed to be.) """ ret = maybe_timestamp_to_rfc3339(input) return ret if ret == input else ret.replace('+00:00', 'Z')
[docs]def to_utc_timestamp(input): """Converts a datetime to a float POSIX timestamp (seconds since epoch).""" if not input: return None timetuple = list(input.timetuple()) # timetuple() usually strips microsecond timetuple[5] += input.microsecond / 1000000 return calendar.timegm(timetuple)
[docs]def as_utc(input): """Converts a timezone-aware datetime to a naive UTC datetime. If input is timezone-naive, it's returned as is. Doesn't support DST! """ if not input.tzinfo: return input utc = input - input.tzinfo.utcoffset(None) return utc.replace(tzinfo=None)
[docs]def naturaltime(val, when=None, **kwargs): """Wrapper for humanize.naturaltime that handles timezone-aware datetimes. ...since humanize currently doesn't. :( https://github.com/python-humanize/humanize/issues/17 """ val = val.replace(tzinfo=None) if when is not None: when = when.replace(tzinfo=None) return humanize.naturaltime(val, when=when, **kwargs)
[docs]def ellipsize(str, words=14, chars=140): """Truncates and ellipsizes str if it's longer than words or chars. Words are simply tokenized on whitespace, nothing smart. """ split = str.split() if len(split) <= words and len(str) <= chars: return str return ' '.join(split[:words])[:chars - 3] + '...'
[docs]def add_query_params(url, params): """Adds new query parameters to a URL. Encodes as UTF-8 and URL-safe. Args: url: string URL or :class:`urllib.request.Request`. May already have query parameters. params: dict or list of (string key, string value) tuples. Keys may repeat. Returns: string URL """ is_request = isinstance(url, urllib.request.Request) if is_request: req = url url = req.get_full_url() if isinstance(params, dict): params = list(params.items()) # convert to list so we can modify later parsed = list(urlparse(url)) # query params are in index 4 params = [(k, str(v).encode('utf-8')) for k, v in params] parsed[4] += ('&' if parsed[4] else '') + urllib.parse.urlencode(params) updated = urllib.parse.urlunparse(parsed) if is_request: return urllib.request.Request(updated, data=req.data, headers=req.headers) else: return updated
[docs]def remove_query_param(url, param): """Removes query parameter(s) from a URL. Decodes URL escapes and UTF-8. If the query parameter is not present in the URL, the URL is returned unchanged, and the returned value is None. If the query parameter is present multiple times, *only the last value is returned*. Args: url: string URL param: string name of query parameter to remove Returns: (string URL without the given param, string param value) """ # convert to list so we can modify later parsed = list(urlparse(url)) # query params are in index 4 removed = None rest = [] for name, val in urllib.parse.parse_qsl(parsed[4], keep_blank_values=True): if name == param: removed = val else: rest.append((name, val)) parsed[4] = urllib.parse.urlencode(rest) url = urllib.parse.urlunparse(parsed) return url, removed
def get_required_param(handler, name): try: val = handler.request.get(name) except (UnicodeDecodeError, UnicodeEncodeError) as e: handler.abort(400, f"Couldn't decode query parameters as UTF-8: {e}") if not val: handler.abort(400, f'Missing required parameter: {name}') return val
[docs]def dedupe_urls(urls, key=None): """Normalizes and de-dupes http(s) URLs. Converts domain to lower case, adds trailing slash when path is empty, and ignores scheme (http vs https), preferring https. Preserves order. Removes Nones and blank strings. Domains are case insensitive, even modern domains with Unicode/punycode characters: http://unicode.org/faq/idn.html#6 https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4343#section-5 As examples, http://foo/ and https://FOO are considered duplicates, but http://foo/bar and http://foo/bar/ aren't. Background: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/URL_normalization TODO: port to https://pypi.python.org/pypi/urlnorm Args: urls: sequence of string URLs or dict objects with 'url' keys key: if not None, an inner key to be dereferenced in a dict object before looking for the 'url' key Returns: sequence of string URLs """ seen = set() result = [] for obj in urls: url = get_url(obj, key=key) if not url: continue p = urllib.parse.urlsplit(url) # normalize domain (hostname attr is lower case) and path norm = [p.scheme, p.hostname, p.path or '/', p.query, p.fragment] if p.scheme == 'http' and urllib.parse.urlunsplit(['https'] + norm[1:]) in result: continue elif p.scheme == 'https': try: result.remove(urllib.parse.urlunsplit(['http'] + norm[1:])) except ValueError: pass url = urllib.parse.urlunsplit(norm) if url not in seen: seen.add(url) if isinstance(obj, dict): val = obj if key is None else get_first(obj, key) val['url'] = url else: obj = url result.append(obj) return result
[docs]def encode_oauth_state(obj): """The state parameter is passed to various source authorization endpoints and returned in a callback. This encodes a JSON object so that it can be safely included as a query string parameter. Args: obj: a JSON-serializable dict Returns: a string """ if not isinstance(obj, dict): raise TypeError(f'Expected dict, got {obj.__class__}') logger.debug(f'encoding state {obj!r}') return urllib.parse.quote_plus(json_dumps(trim_nulls(obj), sort_keys=True))
[docs]def decode_oauth_state(state): """Decodes a state parameter encoded by :meth:`encode_state_parameter`. Args: state: a string (JSON-serialized dict), or None Returns: dict """ if not isinstance(state, str) and state is not None: raise TypeError(f'Expected str, got {state.__class__}') logger.debug(f'decoding state {state!r}', ) try: obj = json_loads(urllib.parse.unquote_plus(state)) if state else {} except ValueError: logger.error(f'Invalid value for state parameter: {state}', stack_info=True) abort(400, f'Invalid value for state parameter: {state}') if not isinstance(obj, dict): logger.error(f'got a non-dict state parameter {state}') return {} return obj
[docs]def if_changed(cache, updates, key, value): """Returns a value if it's different from the cached value, otherwise None. Values that evaluate to False are considered equivalent to None, in order to save cache space. If the values differ, updates[key] is set to value. You can use this to collect changes that should be made to the cache in batch. None values in updates mean that the corresponding key should be deleted. Args: cache: any object with a get(key) method updates: mapping (e.g. dict) key: anything supported by cache value: anything supported by cache Returns: value or None """ if cache is None: return value cached = cache.get(key) # normalize to None if not value: value = None if not cached: cached = None if value == cached: return None updates[key] = value return value
[docs]def generate_secret(): """Generates a URL-safe random secret string. Uses App Engine's `os.urandom()`, which is designed to be cryptographically secure: http://code.google.com/p/googleappengine/issues/detail?id=1055 Args: bytes: integer, length of string to generate Returns: random string """ return base64.urlsafe_b64encode(os.urandom(16))
[docs]def is_int(arg): """Returns True if arg can be converted to an integer, False otherwise.""" try: as_int = int(arg) return as_int == arg if isinstance(arg, numbers.Number) else True except (ValueError, TypeError): return False
[docs]def is_float(arg): """Returns True if arg can be converted to a float, False otherwise.""" try: as_float = float(arg) return as_float == arg if isinstance(arg, numbers.Number) else True except (ValueError, TypeError): return False
[docs]def is_base64(arg): """Returns True if arg is a base64 encoded string, False otherwise.""" return isinstance(arg, str) and re.match('^[a-zA-Z0-9_=-]*$', arg)
[docs]def sniff_json_or_form_encoded(value): """Detects whether value is JSON or form-encoded, parses and returns it. Args: value: string Returns: dict if form-encoded; dict or list if JSON; otherwise string """ if not value: return {} elif value[0] in ('{', '['): return json_loads(value) elif '=' in value: return {k: v[0] if len(v) == 1 else v for k, v in urllib.parse.parse_qs(value).items()} else: return json_loads(value)
[docs]def interpret_http_exception(exception): """Extracts the status code and response from different HTTP exception types. Args: exception: an HTTP request exception. Supported types: * :class:`apiclient.errors.HttpError` * :class:`webob.exc.WSGIHTTPException` * :class:`gdata.client.RequestError` * :class:`oauth2client.client.AccessTokenRefreshError` * :class:`requests.HTTPError` * :class:`urllib.error.HTTPError` * :class:`urllib.error.URLError` * :class:`werkzeug.exceptions.HTTPException` Returns: (string status code or None, string response body or None) """ e = exception code = body = None if exc and isinstance(e, exc.WSGIHTTPException): code = e.code body = e.plain_body({}) elif werkzeug and isinstance(e, werkzeug.exceptions.HTTPException): code = e.code body = e.get_description() elif isinstance(e, urllib.error.HTTPError): code = e.code try: body = e.read() or e.body if body: # store a copy inside the exception because e.fp.seek(0) to reset isn't # always available. e.body = body body = body.decode('utf-8') except (AttributeError, KeyError): if not body: body = str(e.reason) # yes, flickr returns 400s when they're down. kinda ridiculous. fix that. if (code == '418' or (code == '400' and 'Sorry, the Flickr API service is not currently available' in body)): code = '504' elif isinstance(e, urllib.error.URLError): body = str(e.reason) elif ((requests and isinstance(e, requests.HTTPError)) or (prawcore and isinstance(e, prawcore.exceptions.ResponseException))): code = e.response.status_code body = e.response.text elif tumblpy and isinstance(e, tumblpy.TumblpyError): code = e.error_code body = e.msg elif tweepy and isinstance(e, tweepy.HTTPException): code = '429' if isinstance(e, tweepy.TooManyRequests) else '400' body = e.response.text elif apiclient and isinstance(e, apiclient.errors.HttpError): code = e.resp.status body = e.response.text elif ((AccessTokenRefreshError and isinstance(e, AccessTokenRefreshError)) or (prawcore and isinstance(e, prawcore.exceptions.OAuthException))): body = str(e) if body.startswith('invalid_grant'): code = '401' elif body.startswith('internal_failure'): code = '502' # hack to interpret gdata.client.RequestError since gdata isn't a dependency elif e.__class__.__name__ == 'RequestError': code = getattr(e, 'status') body = getattr(e, 'body') elif e.__class__.__name__ == 'Unauthorized': code = '401' body = '' if code: code = str(code) orig_code = code if code or body: logger.warning(f'Error {code}, response body: {body!r}') if isinstance(body, bytes): # good faith effort to decode as UTF-8 or ASCII try: body = body.decode() except: pass # silo-specific error_types that should disable the source. # # instagram if body and ('OAuthAccessTokenException' in body or # revoked access 'APIRequiresAuthenticationError' in body): # account deleted code = '401' # facebook # https://developers.facebook.com/docs/graph-api/using-graph-api/#errors body_json = None error = {} if body: try: body_json = json_loads(body) error = body_json if isinstance(body_json, str) else body_json.get('error', {}) if not isinstance(error, dict): error = {'message': repr(error)} except BaseException: pass # twitter # https://dev.twitter.com/overview/api/response-codes if body_json and not error: errors = body_json.get('errors') if errors and isinstance(errors, list): error = errors[0] type = error.get('type') message = error.get('message') if not isinstance(message, str): message = repr(message) err_code = error.get('code') err_subcode = error.get('error_subcode') if ((type == 'OAuthException' and # have to use message, not error code, since some error codes are for # both auth and non-auth errors, e.g. we've gotten code 100 for both # "This authorization code has expired." and "Too many IDs. ..." ('token provided is invalid.' in message or 'authorization code has expired.' in message or 'the user is not a confirmed user.' in message or 'user must be an administrator of the page' in message or 'user is enrolled in a blocking, logged-in checkpoint' in message or 'access token belongs to a Page that has been deleted.' in message or # this one below comes with HTTP 400, but actually seems to be transient. # 'Cannot call API on behalf of this user' in message or 'Permissions error' == message )) or (type == 'FacebookApiException' and 'Permissions error' in message) or # https://developers.facebook.com/docs/graph-api/using-graph-api#errorcodes # https://developers.facebook.com/docs/graph-api/using-graph-api#errorsubcodes (err_code in (102, 190) and err_subcode in (458, 459, 460, 463, 467, 490)) or (err_code == 326 and 'this account is temporarily locked' in message) ): code = '401' if error.get('is_transient'): if code == '401': code = orig_code if orig_code != '401' else '402' else: code = '503' if (code == '400' and type == 'OAuthException' and ('Page request limit reached' in message or 'Page request limited reached' in message)): code = '429' # upstream errors and connection failures become 502s and 504s, respectively if code == '500': code = '502' elif is_connection_failure(e): code = '504' if not body: body = str(e) if orig_code != code: logger.info(f'Converting code {orig_code} to {code}') return code, body
@contextlib.contextmanager def ignore_http_4xx_error(): try: yield except BaseException as e: code, _ = interpret_http_exception(e) if not (code and int(code) // 100 == 4): raise
[docs]def is_connection_failure(exception): """Returns True if the given exception is a network connection failure. ...False otherwise. """ types = [ ConnectionError, http.client.ImproperConnectionState, http.client.IncompleteRead, http.client.NotConnected, prawcore.exceptions.RequestException, socket.timeout, ssl.SSLError, ] if requests: types += [ requests.exceptions.ChunkedEncodingError, requests.exceptions.ContentDecodingError, requests.ConnectionError, requests.Timeout, requests.TooManyRedirects, ] if urllib3: types += [urllib3.exceptions.HTTPError] msg = str(exception) if (isinstance(exception, tuple(types)) or (isinstance(exception, urllib.error.URLError) and isinstance(exception.reason, socket.error)) or (isinstance(exception, http.client.HTTPException) and 'Deadline exceeded' in msg) or # these are tweepy.TweepError wrapping NewConnectionError 'Connection closed unexpectedly' in msg or 'Max retries exceeded' in msg ): # TODO: exc_info might not be for exception, e.g. if the json_loads() in # interpret_http_exception() fails. need to pass through the whole # sys.exc_info() tuple here, not just the exception object. logger.info(f'Connection failure: {exception}', stack_info=True) return True return False
[docs]class FileLimiter(object): """A file object wrapper that reads up to a limit and then reports EOF. From http://stackoverflow.com/a/29838711/186123 . Thanks SO! """ def __init__(self, file_obj, read_limit): self.read_limit = read_limit self.amount_seen = 0 self.file_obj = file_obj self.ateof = False # So that requests doesn't try to chunk an upload but will instead stream it self.len = read_limit def read(self, amount=-1): if self.amount_seen >= self.read_limit: return b'' remaining = self.read_limit - self.amount_seen to_read = remaining if amount < 0 else min(amount, remaining) data = self.file_obj.read(to_read) self.amount_seen += len(data) if (len(data) < to_read) or (to_read and not data): self.ateof = True return data
[docs]def read(filename): """Returns the contents of filename, or None if it doesn't exist.""" if os.path.exists(filename): with open(filename, encoding='utf-8') as f: return f.read().strip()
[docs]def load_file_lines(file): """Reads lines from a file and returns them as a set. Leading and trailing whitespace is trimmed. Blank lines and lines beginning with # (ie comments) are ignored. Args: file: a file object or other iterable that returns lines Returns: set of strings """ items = set() for line in file: val = line.strip() if val and not val.startswith('#'): items.add(val) return items
[docs]def json_loads(*args, **kwargs): """Wrapper around :func:`json.loads` that centralizes our JSON handling.""" return json.loads(*args, **kwargs)
[docs]def json_dumps(*args, **kwargs): """Wrapper around :func:`json.dumps` that centralizes our JSON handling.""" if ujson: kwargs.setdefault('escape_forward_slashes', False) return json.dumps(*args, **kwargs)
[docs]def set_user_agent(val): """Sets the user agent to be sent in :func:`urlopen` and :func:`requests_fn`. Args: val: str """ global user_agent user_agent = val
[docs]def urlopen(url_or_req, *args, **kwargs): """Wraps :func:`urllib.request.urlopen` and logs the HTTP method and URL. Use :func:`set_user_agent` to change the User-Agent header to be sent. """ data = kwargs.get('data') if isinstance(data, str): kwargs['data'] = data.encode() if url_or_req.__class__.__name__ == 'Request': req = url_or_req if data is None: data = req.data if isinstance(data, str): req.data = data.encode() url = req.get_full_url() else: url = url_or_req req = urllib.request.Request(url) if not req.has_header('User-Agent'): global user_agent req.add_header('User-Agent', user_agent) method = 'GET' if data is None else 'POST' logger.info(f'urlopen {method} {url} {_prune(kwargs)}') kwargs.setdefault('timeout', HTTP_TIMEOUT) return urllib.request.urlopen(req, *args, **kwargs)
[docs]def requests_fn(fn): """Wraps requests.* and logs the HTTP method and URL. Use :func:`set_user_agent` to change the User-Agent header to be sent. Args: fn: 'get', 'head', or 'post' gateway: boolean, whether this is in a HTTP gateway request handler context. If True, errors will be raised as appropriate Flask HTTP exceptions. Malformed URLs result in :class:`werkzeug.exceptions.BadRequest` (HTTP 400), connection failures and HTTP 4xx and 5xx result in :class:`werkzeug.exceptions.BadGateway` (HTTP 502). """ def call(url, session=None, *args, **kwargs): logger.info(f'{session or "requests"}.{fn} {url} {_prune(kwargs)}') gateway = kwargs.pop('gateway', None) kwargs.setdefault('timeout', HTTP_TIMEOUT) # stream to short circuit on too-long response bodies (below) kwargs.setdefault('stream', True) if kwargs.get('headers') is None: kwargs['headers'] = {} kwargs['headers'].setdefault('User-Agent', user_agent) try: # use getattr so that stubbing out with mox still works resp = getattr((session or requests), fn)(url, *args, **kwargs) if gateway: logger.info(f'Received {resp.status_code}: {"" if resp.ok else resp.text[:500]}') resp.raise_for_status() except (ValueError, requests.URLRequired) as e: if isinstance(e, requests.exceptions.InvalidURL): punycode = domain2idna(url) # surprisingly, this handles full URLs fine if punycode != url: # the domain is valid idn2003 but not idn2008. encode and try again. # https://unicode.org/faq/idn.html#6 # https://github.com/psf/requests/issues/3687 # https://github.com/kjd/idna/issues/18 # https://github.com/kjd/idna/issues/40 resp = call(punycode, *args, **kwargs) resp.url = resp.url.replace(urlparse(punycode).netloc, urlparse(url).netloc) return resp if gateway: msg = f'Bad URL {url} : {e}' logger.warning(msg) # this format_exc with tb None below, instead of passing exc_info=True # above, prevents the 'Traceback (most recent call last):' prefix that # triggers Stackdriver Error Reporting logger.warning('\n'.join(traceback.format_tb(sys.exc_info()[2]))) abort(400, msg) raise except requests.RequestException as e: if gateway: msg = str(e) if e.response is not None: msg += f' ; {e.response.text}' logger.warning(msg) logger.warning('\n'.join(traceback.format_tb(sys.exc_info()[2]))) abort(502, msg) raise if url != resp.url: logger.info(f'Redirected to {resp.url}') # check response size for text/ and application/ Content-Types type = resp.headers.get('Content-Type', '') if type and (type.startswith('text/') or type.startswith('application/')): length = resp.headers.get('Content-Length') if is_int(length): length = int(length) else: length = len(resp.text) if length > MAX_HTTP_RESPONSE_SIZE: resp.close() resp.status_code = HTTP_RESPONSE_TOO_BIG_STATUS_CODE resp._text = f'Content-Length {length} is larger than our limit {MAX_HTTP_RESPONSE_SIZE}.' resp._content = resp._text.encode('utf-8') if gateway: resp.raise_for_status() logger.info(f'Received {resp.status_code}') return resp return call
requests_get = requests_fn('get') requests_head = requests_fn('head') requests_post = requests_fn('post') requests_delete = requests_fn('delete')
[docs]def requests_post_with_redirects(url, *args, **kwargs): """Make an HTTP POST, and follow redirects with POST instead of GET. Violates the HTTP spec's rule to follow POST redirects with GET. Yolo! Args: url: string Returns: requests.Response Raises: TooManyRedirects """ for _ in range(requests.models.DEFAULT_REDIRECT_LIMIT): resp = requests_post(url, *args, allow_redirects=False, **kwargs) url = resp.headers.get('Location') if resp.is_redirect and url: continue resp.raise_for_status() return resp raise requests.TooManyRedirects(response=resp)
def _prune(kwargs): pruned = dict(kwargs) headers = pruned.get('headers') if headers: pruned['headers'] = {k: '...' for k in headers} return {k: v for k, v in list(pruned.items()) if k not in ('allow_redirects', 'stream', 'timeout')}
[docs]@cached(follow_redirects_cache, lock=follow_redirects_cache_lock, key=lambda url, **kwargs: url) def follow_redirects(url, **kwargs): """Fetches a URL with HEAD, repeating if necessary to follow redirects. Caches results for 1 day by default. To bypass the cache, use follow_redirects.__wrapped__(...). Does not raise an exception if any of the HTTP requests fail, just returns the failed response. If you care, be sure to check the returned response's status code! Args: url: string kwargs: passed to requests.head() Returns: the `requests.Response` for the final request. The `url` attribute has the final URL. """ try: # default scheme to http parsed = urlparse(url) if not parsed.scheme: url = 'http://' + url resolved = requests_head(url, allow_redirects=True, **kwargs) except AssertionError: raise except BaseException as e: logger.warning(f"Couldn't resolve URL {url} : {e}") resolved = requests.Response() resolved.url = url resolved.status_code = 499 # not standard. i made this up. try: resolved.raise_for_status() if resolved.url != url: logger.debug(f'Resolved {url} to {resolved.url}') except BaseException as e: logger.warning(f"Couldn't resolve URL {url}: {resolved.url}") content_type = resolved.headers.get('content-type') if (not resolved.ok or not content_type): # Content-Type of error response isn't useful if resolved.url: type, _ = mimetypes.guess_type(resolved.url) resolved.headers['content-type'] = type or 'text/html' refresh = resolved.headers.get('refresh') if refresh: for part in refresh.split(';'): if part.strip().startswith('url='): return follow_redirects(part.strip()[4:], **kwargs) resolved.url = clean_url(resolved.url) if url != resolved.url: with follow_redirects_cache_lock: follow_redirects_cache[resolved.url] = resolved return resolved
[docs]class UrlCanonicalizer(object): """Converts URLs to their canonical form. If an input URL matches approve or reject, it's automatically approved as is without following redirects. If we HEAD the URL to follow redirects and it returns 4xx or 5xx, we return None. """ def __init__(self, scheme='https', domain=None, subdomain=None, approve=None, reject=None, query=False, fragment=False, trailing_slash=False, redirects=True, headers=None): """Constructor. Args: scheme: string canonical scheme for this source (default 'https') domain: string canonical domain for this source (default None). If set, links on other domains will be rejected without following redirects. subdomain: string canonical subdomain, e.g. 'www' (default none, ie root domain). only added if there's not already a subdomain. approve: string regexp matching URLs that are automatically considered canonical reject: string regexp matching URLs that are automatically considered canonical query: boolean, whether to keep query params, if any (default False) fragment: boolean, whether to keep fragment, if any (default False) trailing slash: boolean, whether the path should end in / (default False) redirects: boolean, whether to make HTTP HEAD requests to follow redirects (default True) headers: passed through to the requests.head call for following redirects """ self.scheme = self.to_unicode(scheme) self.domain = self.to_unicode(domain) self.subdomain = self.to_unicode(subdomain) self.approve = re.compile(approve) if approve else None self.reject = re.compile(reject) if reject else None self.query = query self.fragment = fragment self.trailing_slash = trailing_slash self.redirects = redirects self.headers = headers @staticmethod def to_unicode(val): return val.decode() if isinstance(val, bytes) else val def __call__(self, url, redirects=None): """Canonicalizes a string URL. Returns the canonical form of a string URL, or None if it can't be canonicalized, eg its domain doesn't match. """ url = self.to_unicode(url) if self.approve and self.approve.match(url): return url elif self.reject and self.reject.match(url): return None parsed = urlparse(url) domain = parsed.hostname if not domain: return None elif (self.domain and domain != self.domain and not domain.endswith('.' + self.domain)): return None if domain.startswith('www.'): domain = domain[4:] if self.subdomain and domain.count('.') == 1: domain = f'{self.subdomain}.{domain}' scheme = self.scheme or parsed.scheme query = parsed.query if self.query else '' fragment = parsed.fragment if self.fragment else '' path = parsed.path if self.trailing_slash and not path.endswith('/'): path += '/' elif not self.trailing_slash and path.endswith('/'): path = path[:-1] new_url = urllib.parse.urlunparse((scheme, domain, path, '', query, fragment)) if new_url != url: return self(new_url, redirects=redirects) # recheck approve/reject if redirects or (redirects is None and self.redirects): resp = follow_redirects(url, headers=self.headers) if resp.status_code // 100 in (4, 5): return None elif resp.url != url: return self(resp.url, redirects=False) return url
[docs]class WideUnicode(str): """String class with consistent indexing and len() on narrow *and* wide Python. PEP 261 describes that Python 2 builds come in "narrow" and "wide" flavors. Wide is configured with --enable-unicode=ucs4, which represents Unicode high code points above the 16-bit Basic Multilingual Plane in unicode strings as single characters. This means that len(), indexing, and slices of unicode strings use Unicode code points consistently. Narrow, on the other hand, represents high code points as "surrogate pairs" of 16-bit characters. This means that len(), indexing, and slicing unicode strings does *not* always correspond to Unicode code points. Mac OS X, Windows, and older Linux distributions have narrow Python 2 builds, while many modern Linux distributions have wide builds, so this can cause platform-specific bugs, e.g. with many commonly used emoji. Docs: https://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0261/ https://docs.python.org/2.7/library/codecs.html?highlight=ucs2#encodings-and-unicode http://www.unicode.org/glossary/#high_surrogate_code_point Inspired by: http://stackoverflow.com/a/9934913 Related work: https://uniseg-python.readthedocs.io/ https://pypi.python.org/pypi/pytextseg https://github.com/LuminosoInsight/python-ftfy/ https://github.com/PythonCharmers/python-future/issues/116 https://dev.twitter.com/basics/counting-characters On StackOverflow: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/1446347/how-to-find-out-if-python-is-compiled-with-ucs-2-or-ucs-4 http://stackoverflow.com/questions/12907022/python-getting-correct-string-length-when-it-contains-surrogate-pairs http://stackoverflow.com/questions/35404144/correctly-extract-emojis-from-a-unicode-string """ def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs): super(WideUnicode, self).__init__() # use UTF-32LE to avoid a byte order marker at the beginning of the string self.__utf32le = str(self).encode('utf-32le') def __len__(self): return len(self.__utf32le) // 4 def __getitem__(self, key): length = len(self) if isinstance(key, int): if key >= length: raise IndexError() key = slice(key, key + 1) start = key.start or 0 stop = length if key.stop is None else key.stop assert key.step is None return WideUnicode(self.__utf32le[start * 4:stop * 4].decode('utf-32le')) def __getslice__(self, i, j): return self.__getitem__(slice(i, j))
[docs]def parse_html(input, **kwargs): """Parses an HTML string with BeautifulSoup. Uses the HTML parser currently set in the beautifulsoup_parser global. http://www.crummy.com/software/BeautifulSoup/bs4/doc/#specifying-the-parser-to-use We generally try to use the same parser and version in prod and locally, since we've been bit by at least one meaningful difference between lxml and e.g. html5lib: lxml includes the contents of <noscript> tags, html5lib omits them. https://github.com/snarfed/bridgy/issues/798#issuecomment-370508015 Specifically, projects like oauth-dropins, granary, and bridgy all use lxml explicitly. Args: input: unicode HTML string or :class:`requests.Response` kwargs: passed through to :class:`bs4.BeautifulSoup` constructor Returns: :class:`bs4.BeautifulSoup` """ kwargs.setdefault('features', beautifulsoup_parser) if isinstance(input, requests.Response): # The original HTTP 1.1 spec (RFC 2616, 1999) said to default HTML charset # to ISO-8859-1 if it's not explicitly provided in Content-Type. RFC 7231 # (2014) removed that default: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7231#appendix-B # # requests is working on incorporating that change, but hasn't shippet it yet. # https://github.com/psf/requests/issues/2086 # # so, if charset isn't explicitly provided, pass on the raw bytes and let # BS4/UnicodeDammit figure it out from <meta charset> tag or anything else. # https://github.com/snarfed/granary/issues/171 content_type = input.headers.get('content-type') or '' input = input.text if 'charset' in content_type else input.content return bs4.BeautifulSoup(input, **kwargs)
[docs]def parse_mf2(input, url=None, id=None): """Parses microformats2 out of HTML. Currently uses mf2py. Args: input: unicode HTML string, :class:`bs4.BeautifulSoup`, or :class:`requests.Response` url: optional unicode string, URL of the input page, used as the base for relative URLs id: string, optional id of specific element to extract and parse. defaults to the whole page. Returns: dict, parsed mf2 data """ if isinstance(input, requests.Response) and not url: url = input.url if not isinstance(input, (bs4.BeautifulSoup, bs4.Tag)): input = parse_html(input) if id: logger.info(f'Extracting and parsing just DOM element {id}') input = input.find(id=id) if not input: return None return mf2py.parse(url=url, doc=input, img_with_alt=True)
[docs]def fetch_mf2(url, get_fn=requests_get, gateway=False, **kwargs): """Fetches an HTML page over HTTP, parses it, and returns its microformats2. Args: url: unicode string get_fn: callable matching :func:`requests.get`'s signature, for the HTTP fetch gateway: boolean; see :func:`requests_fn` **kwargs: passed through to :func:`requests.get` Returns: dict, parsed mf2 data. Includes the final URL of the parsed document (after redirects) in the top-level `url` field. """ resp = get_fn(url, gateway=gateway, **kwargs) resp.raise_for_status() mf2 = parse_mf2(resp) assert 'url' not in mf2 mf2['url'] = resp.url return mf2